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An Introduction to Translation - By: Hussein Ghunaim

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An Introduction to Translation - By: Hussein Ghunaim Empty An Introduction to Translation - By: Hussein Ghunaim

Post by Admin Tue Dec 11, 2007 9:04 pm

An Introduction to Translation

Hussein Ghunaim

* Translating: A project for transferring meaning from one language to another.
* Denotation: The core conceptual meaning of the word.
* Connotation: The shades of the meaning that are sometimes added to the denotation of the word.
* Equivalence: Is a key concept in the process of translating.
1. Formal Equivalence.
2. Functional Equivalence.
3. Ideational Equivalence.
* Context: Is an important notion is the process of translating because the type of equivalence that the competent translator opts for depends primarily on contextual factors.
- The contextual factors: The author, the text and the audience.

1. Literal Translation:
- The oldest type of translation practice, that involves the conveyance of denotative meaning of phrases and sentences in a text from one language to another, and it is different from word-for-word translation.
2. Metaphorical Translation:
- The Metaphor: Multi-word unit that links two things/people. We have a topic, an illustration and points(s) of similarity. Ex: Ali is a lion.
- The Metaphorical Translation: Involves the translation of SL metaphors into TL metaphors.
3. Precise Translation:
- The Precise Translation: Is a translation method whereby the translator gives a TL summary of the SL text he is dealing with.
4. Adaptation and Free Translation:
- Adaptation: Is a translation method whereby the SL text is freely translated into the TL.
- Free Translation: A translation method whereby an SL literary text is relayed into the TL by reproducing the matter without the manner, or the content without the form.


1. Naturalization and Arabicization:
a) Naturalization: Is a translation strategy whereby SL usage is converted into normal TL usage.
- Arabicization: A kind of naturalization that takes place either at sound level where SL spelling and pronunciation are converted into Arabic ones or at the concept level where an SL concept is loan-translated into Arabic.
- Arabization: التعريب
b) Cultural Approximation: A translation strategy whereby a culture-specific expression in the SL is translated into a cultural substitute in the TL. [God – الله] [as busy as a bee – زي ام العروس] [Home Office – وزارة الداخلية].
c) Descriptive Translation: A translation strategy whereby an expression in the SL is paraphrased into the TL by describing it conceptually. [Zakat = Compulsory charity in Islam].
d) Lexical Creation: A translation strategy that involves the coining of new lexical items in the TL to stand for SL culture-specific elements. [poor-tax = الزكاة] [breast-brother = الأخ بالرضاعة] [co-wife = الضرّة].
e) Managing: A translation strategy which involves the alteration of the SL message in such away that makes it meet or approximate the translator’s own goals or ideas.

* Kinds of dictionaries:
1. Monolingual Dictionaries: Dictionaries that Lists the word within one language, giving the meaning of these lexical items.
2. Bilingual Dictionaries: Deal with languages by listing the words within one language unexplained along with their equivalents in another language.
Hussein Ghunaim

!!!! Palestinian for EVER !!!!

English Club For Arab Students

An Introduction to Translation - By: Hussein Ghunaim Graduation


Number of posts : 83
Age : 38
Localisation : Jordan - Zarqa
Registration date : 2007-07-09


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